留学生课程作业范文：Absolute and Relative Ethics 。本人一篇国外大学课程作业，主要内容是通过讲述绝对伦理与相对伦理的概念，以及在企业管理中的实际运用问题。是一篇典型的留学生作业范例。通过阅读文献总结出作者个人的观点和看法。供各位参考。
There are many approaches to ethics. I will briefly outline two types of theoretical approach to ethics and their implications: principle-based approaches, and character and relationship-based approaches.
Principle-based approaches to ethics 基于原则的伦理学方法
It is important to understand this concept. This approach has often been based on two different ethical traditions – Kantianism and utilitarianism. Immanual Kant, was a German philosopher (1724-1804) in the eighteenth-century. He developed a theory of ethics.
This approach to ethics is known as ‘deontological’ or duty-based. It plays a vital role in moral philosophy and also in professional ethics. ‘Persons’ are considered to have rational and self-determination – it means they are capable of making choices and acting upon them. For deontological ethics, the important thing isn’t the result or consequence of the action, but the action itself. If the action is wrong, in and of itself, then don’t do it.
This approach mainly has its focus on respect of the service user and also that he can make his own decisions. The main principles in this approach are to maintain confidentiality, obtain informed consent, no discrimination or offering misleading or false information. For Kant, it would be morally wrong to perform any action which is based on false information even though the end result is beneficial. According to this approach, we must all respect individual’s choices.
Utilitarianism, on the contrary, is a teleological theory. It is particularly associated with two British philosophers, Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) (Mill 1863/1972). Also known as the consequentialist theory of ethics. The main difference lies in the concept and it is in striking contrast as compared to the Kantian ethics. The moral worth (rightness or wrongness) of an action is said to lie in its consequences; hence if we have to decide if an action is right or wrong, we have to weigh pros and cons and also anticipate. According to this concept, if lying leads to good results, it would probably be good to lie. This theory relies on the fact that whether something is right or wrong depends on the result or end of that action. Theories that are interested in ends are called teleological. The name has originated from the Greek word for ‘end’ – telos. For a teleological ethical thinker, the end justifies the means. The believers of this theory argue that the rightness of an action is judged by the end it produces.
In my opinion, people consider both types of ethical principles in making decisions. We have to make a judgment that ensures that we are looking at individual’s best interest or the welfare of the society at a bigger scale.
Absolute and Relative Ethics 绝对伦理与相对伦理
Absolute ethics holds that there is one universal moral code which is final and applies equally to all men of all ages, and that changing situations or changing views make no difference whatsoever to this absolute moral code. Relative or relativistic ethics holds that the moral standard varies with different circumstances. There are so many cultural and religious differ